The name of this organization shall be First Baptist Church of New Lisbon, Wisconsin.


SECTION I: This church declares its faith and purpose embodied in the following
doctrinal statement (all scripture references are to the King James Version):

1. The Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments are verbally inspired of God, and
inerrant in the original writings, and they are the supreme and final authority in faith
and life (Psalms 12:6 & 7, II Timothy 3:16).

2. There is one God, eternally existent in three co-equal Persons; Father, Son, and
Holy Spirit (I John 5:7)

3. Jesus Christ, who is God the Son, became man, begotten by the Holy Spirit, and
born of the virgin Mary, and through eternity continues to be true God and true man
(Matthew 1:20-25, John 1:1-14).

4. Man was created in the image of God; sinned and thereby incurred both physical
and spiritual death; all men are born with a sinful nature, and consequently become
sinners in thought, word, and deed (Genesis 1:26, Romans 5:12) .

5. The Lord Jesus Christ died for our sins, according to the Scriptures, as a
substitutionary sacrifice; and all who believe and receive Him are saved on the
grounds of His death and resurrection (John 1:12, Romans 5:8, Acts 16:31).

6. The crucified body of our Lord was resurrected; He ascended into Heaven, and lives
there, as our High Priest and Advocate before the Father (I Corinthians 15:4).

7. All who receive by faith the Lord Jesus Christ are born of the Holy Spirit and thereby
become the children of God (John 1:12).

8. Those who are born of the Spirit are to live the Christian life by the power of the

indwelling Holy Spirit according to the Word of God (I John 2:9, I Peter 1:18 – 23).

9. The true living Church is composed of all regenerated believers; and its supreme
mission is to fulfill Christ’s Great Commission in preaching the gospel to all people
(Matthew 28:18-20).

10. Believers are to observe the ordinances of baptism (by immersion) and the
Lord’s Supper, and to unite with evangelical churches and to continue faithfully in this
fellowship for spiritual improvement and avenues of service (Acts 2:47).

11. Our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ will return to earth personally, bodily, visibly, and
gloriously, and all believers should look for His Coming, which is the blessed hope of
the Church (John 14:2 & 3).

12. The bodies of the dead, both of the just and unjust, will be resurrected; the saved
to enjoy everlasting blessedness, and the lost to endure everlasting punishment (John
5:22 – 29, Revelation 20:11 – 15).

Part II: Amplified Doctrinal Statement:
Whereas we live in a time of departure from the Word of God, we herein declare
ourselves to be:

Biblical rather than Interdenominational,
Separatistic rather than new evangelical,
Bible-believing rather than liberal,
Autonomous rather than denominationally controlled in church government,
Premillemal rather than postmillemal or amillenial in eschatology,
Pretribulational rather than posttribulational or midtribulational in regard to the rapture,
Local church centered rather than ecumenical in policy,
Separated rather than inclusivistic,
Creationist rather than evolutionist (Genesis 1 & 2, Exodus 20:11).


1. The Holy Scriptures. We believe the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New
Testaments to be the verbally inspired Word of God, the final authority for faith and
life, inerrant in the original manuscripts, infallible, and God-breathed (II Tim. 3:16,17; II
Peter 1:20,21; Matt. 5:18; John 16:12,13).

2. The Godhead. We believe in one Triune God, eternally existing in three persons-

-Father, Son, and Holy Spirit–co-eternal in being, co-identical in nature, co-equal in
power and glory, and having the same attributes and perfections (Ex. 20:2,3; Deut.
6:4; I Cor. 8:6; II Cor. 13:14).

a. We believe that the Lord Jesus Christ, the eternal Son of God, became man,
without ceasing to be God, having been conceived by the Holy Spirit and born of the
virgin Mary, in order that He might reveal God and redeem sinful men (John1:1,2,14;
Luke 1:35; I John 5:20).

b. We believe that the Lord Jesus Christ accomplished our redemption through His
death cross on the cross as a representative, vicarious, substitutionary sacrifice; and,
that our justification is made sure by His literal, physica1 resurrection from dead (Rom.
3:24,25; Eph. 1:7; I Peter 1:3-5; I Peter 2:24).

c. We believe that the Lord Jesus Christ ascended to Heaven, and is now exalted
at the right hand of God, where, as our High Priest, He fulfills the ministry of
Representative, Intercessor, and Advocate (Acts 1:9,10; Rom. 8:34; Heb. 7:25; 9:24; I
John 2:1,2).

4. The Person and Work of the Holy Spirit.

a. We believe that the Holy Spirit is a person who convicts the world of sin,
of righteousness, and of judgment; and, that He is the Supernatural Agent in
regeneration, baptizing all believers into the body of Christ, indwelling and sealing
them unto the day of redemption (John 16:8-11; Rom. 8:9; I Cor. 12:12-14; II Cor. 3:6;
Eph. 1:13,14).

b. We believe that the Holy Spirit is the Divine Teacher who guides believers into truth;
and, that it is the privilege and duty of all the saved to be filled with the Spirit (John
16:13; Eph. 5:18; I John 2:20,27).

5. The Total depravity of Man. We believe that man was created in the image and
likeness of God, but that in Adam’s sin the race fell, inherited a sinful nature, and
became alienated from God; and, that man is totally depraved and of himself, utterly
unable to remedy his lost condition (Gen. 1:26,27; Rom. 3:9-12,23; Rom. 5:12; Eph.

6. Salvation. We believe that salvation is the gift of God brought to man by grace and

received by personal faith in the Lord Jesus Christ, who made full satisfaction to the
justice of God for the sin of man by the shedding of His precious blood on Calvary
(Acts 4:12; Acts 16:30-33; Eph. 2:8-10; Eph. 1:7; I Peter 1:18,19).

7. Eternal Security. We believe that all the redeemed, once saved are kept saved by
God’s power and are thus secure in Christ forever (John 6:37-40; John 10:27-30; Rom.
8:1,38,39; I Cor. 1:4-8; Phil. 1 :6; I Peter 1 :5).

8. The Two Natures of the Believer. We believe that every saved person possesses
two natures, with provision made for victory of the new nature through the power of the
indwelling Holy Spirit; and, that all claims to the eradication of the old nature in this life
are unscriptural (Rom. 6:13; Rom. 8:12,13; Gal. 5:16-25; Eph. 4:22-24; Co1.3:10;
I Peter 1:14-16; I John 3:5-9).

9. Separation. We believe that all the saved should live in such a manner as not to
bring reproach upon their Saviour and Lord; and, that separation from all religious
apostasy, all sinful pleasure, practices and associations is commanded of God (II Cor.
6:14-7:1; Ro. 12:1,2; Rom. 14:13; II Tim. 3:1-5; I John 2:15-17).

10. The Church.
a. We believe that the Church, which is the body and the espoused bride of Christ,
is a spiritual organism made up of all born-again persons of the present age (Eph.
1:22&23; 5:25-27; I Cor. 12:12-14; II Cor. 11:2).

b. We believe that the local church is a congregation of immersed believers,
associated by covenant of faith and fellowship of the Word of God, observing the
ordinances of Christ, governed by His laws, exercising the gifts, rights, and privileges
invested in it by His Word; that its officers are pastor (bishop, elder overseer) and
deacon; that it has the absolute right of self-government directed by the Holy Spirit and
is answerable only to Christ as its Head; and that in all matters of membership, policy,
government, discipline, and benevolence, the will of the local church is final (Matt.
18:15-17; I Cor.
1 :2; 6:4; 7:17; 11:16; I Tim. 3:1-15).

11. The Ordinances. We believe that there are two ordinances; baptism and the Lord’s

a. Baptism is the immersion of a believer in water and is properly called “Believers
Baptism”. It sets forth in a beautiful and solemn way our faith in a crucified, buried
and risen Saviour, our identification with Him in His death to sin and resurrection to

newness of life (Acts 8:36-39; Rom. 6:3-5).

b. The Lord’s Supper is the celebration of our Lord’s death until He returns for us and
is a symbol of our continuing fellowship with Him. It should be preceded by careful
self- examination (I Cor. 11:23-32).

12. Spiritual Gifts. We believe that God is sovereign in the bestowment of all His
gifts, and that there are two categories, temporary gifts of the early church and the
permanent glorifying gifts:

a. The temporary gifts of the early church as listed in I Cor. 12:8-10, were special
gifts of grace which were given to the early church and were necessary for the
commencement (beginning) of the church’s ministry. They were only needed until
such time as the church was firmly established and God’s complete revelation was
given. These temporary gifts gradually ceased as the New Testament Scriptures were
completed and their authority became established (I Cor. 13:8-12).

b. The permanent glorifying gifts as described in Romans 12:3-8, were given to the
body of Christ at the Day of Pentecost and will continue until Christ comes to rapture
His Church. These gifts were given so that each individual member of the body of
Christ could minister his spiritual gift to the edifying of the entire body (Eph. 4:7,11-16).

13. Dispensationalism. We believe that the Scriptures interpreted in their natural, literal
sense reveal divinely determined dispensations or rules of life which define man’s
responsibilities in successive ages. These dispensations are not ways of salvation,
but rather divinely ordered stewardships by which God directs man according to His
purpose. Three of these–the age of law, the age of the Church (Grace), and the age of
the Millennial Kingdom–are the subjects of detailed revelation in Scripture (John 1:17;
1 Cor. 9:17; II Cor. 3:9-18; Gal. 3:13-25; Eph. 1:10; 3:2-10; Col. 1:24&25; Heb. 7:19;
Rev. 20:2-6).

14. The Personality of Satan. We believe that Satan is a fallen angel, the author of sin
and the cause of the fall; he is the open and declared enemy of God and man; and,
that he shall be eternally punished in the Lake of Fire (Job 1:6,7; Isa. 14:12-17; Ezek.
28:12-19; Matt. 4:1-3; Rev. 20:10).

15. The Return of Christ. We believe in the bodily, personal, imminent, pretribulation
period to catch away the Church, coming only into the air; and that He will come at the
close of the tribulation with His Church to judge the nations and set up His Kingdom (I

Thess. 4:13-18; 1:10; 5:9; Zech. 14:4-11; Rev. 19:11-16; 20:1-6).

16. The Eternal State.
a. We believe in the bodily resurrection of all men, the saved to eternal life, and
the unsaved to judgment and everlasting punishment (Matt. 25:46; John 5:28,29;
11:25,26; Rev. 20:5,6,12,13).

b. We believe that the souls of the redeemed are, at death,
absent from the body and present with the Lord, where in conscious bliss they await
the first resurrection, when spirit, soul and body are reunited to be glorified forever with
the Lord — (Luke 23:43; II Cor. 5:8; Phil. 1:23; 3:21; I Thess. 4:16,17).

c. We believe that the souls of unbelievers remain, after death, in conscious misery
until the second resurrection when with soul and body reunited they shall appear at
the Great White Throne Judgment, and shall be cast into the Lake of Fire, not to be
annihilated, but to suffer everlasting conscious punishment
(Luke 16:19-26; II Thess. 1:7-9; Jude 6,7; Rev. 20:11-15).

SECTION II: This church shall be affiliated only with such missionaries and missionary
organizations who are willing to subscribe to the doctrinal statement of this church,
for it is not consistent to promote a missionary ministry that is out of harmony with the
ministry of this local church.


“And they entered in a covenant to seek the Lord God of their fathers with all their
heart and with all their soul” (ll Chron. 15:12).

Having been led, as we believe: by the Spirit of God to receive
the Lord Jesus Christ, as our Savior, and on profession of our faith having been
baptized (Matt. 3:13-17; 28:19; Acts 8:38; 8:12; Col. 2:12) in the Name of the Father,
and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, we do now, in the presence of God, angels, and
this assembly, most solemnly and joyfully enter into covenant with one another, as one
body in Christ.
We do promise by the aid of the Holy Spirit to forsake the paths of sin, and to walk
together in Christian love; to strive for the advancement of this church, in knowledge,
holiness, and comfort; to promote its prosperity and spirituality; to sustain its worship,
ordinances, discipline, and doctrines; to contribute cheerfully to the support of the

ministry, the expenses of the church, the relief of the poor, and the spread of the
gospel through all nations.
We also engage to maintain family and secret devotions; to religiously educate our
children; to seek the salvation of our kindred and acquaintances; to walk circumspectly
in the world, to be just in our dealings, faithful in our engagements, and exemplary in
our deportment; to avoid all tattling, backbiting, and excessive anger; to abstain from
the sale and use of intoxicating drink as a beverage, and to be zealous in our efforts to
advance the work of our Savior.
We further engage to watch over one another in brotherly love; to remember each
other in prayer; to aid each other in sickness and distress; to cultivate Christian
sympathy in feeling and courtesy in speech; to be slow to take offense, but always
ready for reconciliation and mindful of the rules of our Savior, to seek it without delay.
We moreover engage that, when we remove form this place, we will as soon as
possible unite with some other church where we can carry out the spirit of this
covenant and the principles of God’s Word.


As a means of orderly procedure, the following rules and regulations are adopted.

For purposes of the corporation the Deacon Board would serve as the Board of
Directors and the Trustees selected by the Deacon Board would serve as the
Financial Committee.



1. By Baptism–Any person professing faith in the Lord Jesus Christ, giving evidence
of a change of heart and accepting the views of this church as revealed in its doctrinal
statement, may upon baptism, be received into the membership of this church.

2. By Experience–Persons who have been baptized by immersion, upon profession
of their faith and the acceptance of the views of this church as revealed in its doctrinal
statement, may be received into the membership of this church.

3. By Restoration–Members of this church whose membership has been withdrawn,
or whose membership has been dropped, may, upon recommendation of the Board of
Deacons, be restored to membership by vote of the church.

4. The Mode of Procedure–AII applications for admission to membership shall be
made to an examining committee consisting of the Pastor and Board of Deacons. The
recommendation of this committee will be presented to the church body for final action.


1. Junior Membership– Persons under the age of eighteen, who have met all other
requirements for membership, shall be received as Junior Members. Only members
18 or older may vote on matters of real estate or matters of legal nature. Only
members 15 or older may vote on matters of church business. However all members
may enter into discussion at meetings dealing with the business of the church.

2. Active Membership– The active membership of this church shall consist of those
members who attend services at least once a month. This does not apply to those who
will be spending a number of weeks away from their home, or ‘wintering’ somewhere,
but it shall be their responsibility to give written notification to the Deacons when they
will be away for such periods. Only active members shall have the power to vote in a
business meeting of the church. No votes will be accepted by proxy except for election
of officers at a December or annual meeting.

3. Inactive Membership– The inactive membership of this church shall consist of those
members who are no longer able to take an active part in the church
activities due to age, health, distance or some other reason, yet who want to retain
their membership in this church. To maintain this inactive status one must attend,
contribute or communicate at least once during each church year. Inactive members
shall not have the power to vote in a business meeting of the church.

4. Participation in Church Ministries—No individual will be allowed to participate in any
area of ministry who is not a member in good standing, or a member in good standing
of another church of like faith and practice. Ministry should include but not be limited
to: choir; special music; Sunday school teacher; any oversight in ministries to children
and youth; special speaker; missionary speaker; nursery worker; and etc. A church
of like faith and practice is defined as being a church that holds to a similar doctrinal
statement as found in Article II of FAITH, PURPOSE, AND AFFILIATION.


1. Any member who may move to another place to establish permanent residence is
urged, in keeping with the church covenant, to join a local church in that community.

2. Any member who has no desire to remain on the membership roll and requests to
be dropped shall automatically be removed from the membership roll.

3. Any member of this church who unites with any other church will automatically be
removed from the membership of this church. Such persons shall be notified of this
action through letter or personal contact.

4. Any member absent from the church for a period of one year or more, who does
not attend, contribute or communicate at least once during each church year, shall be
removed from membership.

5. Any person who consistently demonstrates attitudes contrary to the church
covenant shall be approached by the pastor or deacons according to Matt. 18: 15-17.
If restoration does not take place, such member, upon recommendation of the Deacon
Board, shall be dismissed from the membership of the church by a two-thirds majority
of members voting at a regularly called business meeting of the church. The person in
question shall be notified at least one week in advance of the contemplated action of
the church. The dismissed member shall be notified of the church action. In all matters
of church discipline it shall always be kept in mind that the purpose of discipline is to
maintain the purity of the church’s witness in the community, and to provide for the
spiritual good of the person being disciplined.


All officers shall be elected as hereinafter provided and shall serve for the term
specified or until their successors are elected and qualified. Vacancies shall be filled
for the unexpired term by appointment of the Deacon Board.
1. The Pastor.

Part I: The Pastor shall be elected by the church membership upon recommendation
of a pulpit committee of three, which the deacons shall select from their membership.
An affirmative vote of three-fourths of the members present shall be required to elect
a Pastor at a meeting for that purpose after two week’s notice by announcement from
the pulpit at two Sunday meetings of the church. The Pastor’s term of office shall be
for an indefinite period. In case of change of relationship, one month’s notice shall be

given by the pastor or deacon board, unless by mutual consent or agreement, such
notice shall be waived.

Part II: The Pastor’s Duties and Compensation:

The Pastor’s duties shall be to have general supervision of the entire work of the
church; he shall be ex-officio member of all departments, boards, and committees,
and may, at his option, convene the church body, any board or committee or auxiliary
organization for the consideration of business pertaining to the work of the church,
and receive such compensation as may be fixed by order of the church upon
recommendation of the board of deacons.

2. Church Clerk. The Church Clerk shall be elected annually, shall make and preserve
a record of all church procedures and its accomplishments; shall make and revise
each year a roster of church members, including dates of admission and severance of
membership by death, dismissal or otherwise, including an inactive membership list.
The clerk shall be custodian of historical documents and records.

3. Financial Secretary. A Financial Secretary shall be elected annually. He shall keep
an itemized account of money contributed to current expenses and to missions; and
shall send yearly to each subscriber a statement of the subscriber’s personal account
and shall be prepared to give to any subscriber a personal statement at his request.

4. Sunday School Superintendent. A Sunday School Superintendent shall be elected
at the December or annual meeting for a period of one year and shall serve no more
than three consecutive years. He shall have general supervision of the Sunday school
and he shall organize the Sunday School board consisting of all teachers and officers
of the school.

5. Head Usher. A Head Usher shall be elected annually. His duties will be to cooperate
with the Board of Deacons in extending a social welcome to all church attendants,
provide for their comfortable seating, direct the ventilation, heating and lighting during
meetings, preserve order and attend to emergency needs of the congregation. He
shall select and organize a corp of assistants.

6. Church Treasurer A Church Treasurer shall be elected annually. He shall, with the
advice of the Deacon Board, keep an accurate accounting of the monies of the church.
He shall keep a systematic account of all disbursements therefrom, and if required by
the Deacon Board render monthly or quarterly financial statements and shall make
a financial report at the annual meetings of the church. The Church Treasurer shall

preserve all vouchers, records, financial statements and balance sheets.

Election of officers shall be made at either the annual meeting or a special meeting in
December for said purpose, provided the special meeting is announced 2 Sundays
from the pulpit, with absentee ballots made available for cause for just the election of


I. Number and Election
There shall be seven Deacons (Acts 6:1-7), whose nomination and election shall be
based upon spiritual qualifications according to I Timothy 3:8-13. They shall be elected
at the annual or December meeting of the church, for a term of office of three years,
and so classified that one third shall be elected each year. The Board of
Deacons will handle all financial and spiritual matters of the church with the assistance
of the Pastor(s). They shall meet at least once per month.

The Board of Deacons shall elect from themselves a chairman. The Deacons shall,
along with the pastor(s), appoint three Deacons as Trustees for legal purposes, and
shall appoint one Deacon as secretary for the keeping of minutes of every meeting of
the Board of Deacons.

III. Responsibilities of the Deacon Board

1. The Board of Deacons shall ~ the Pastor in sustaining meetings for public worship
and for prayer, consulting with candidates for church membership, enlisting them for
worship, service and giving. They shall also assist the Pastor(s) in the administration
of the ordinances, inspiring the indifferent, caring for the needy. They shall see that the
pulpit is supplied during vacation periods, or when the Pastor is away for a Sunday,
and perform such other duties as the church may delegate to them.

2. The Deacon Board shall supply the treasury with funds for the operating expenses
of the church and the maintenance of its properties. It shall provide methods for
securing such funds. They shall make quarterly reports to the church as to the
financial condition of the church for its guidance as to administrative policies. These
reports shall be made by the Church Treasurer. The Deacon Board has the authority
to prepare and recommend to the church an annual budget at the annual meeting of
the church.

3. Committee of Trustees.
The Committee of Trustees within the Board of Deacons shall receive and hold in
trust all church properties, including gifts, conveyances of real estate, endowment
funds and the profits and earnings thereof and shall have general supervision of its
investment and all legal instruments pertaining thereto. They shall have custody of all
church properties and maintain the same. Plans for major changes and improvements
shall be presented to the church for final action. Deeds of conveyance and mortgages
of church real estate shall be executed by the Trustees only when and if authorized so
to do by a special meeting of the church called for that purpose after two weeks notice
posted at the church door and announced for two Sundays from the pulpit and such
order duly recorded in the minutes of the church records.

4. Auditing Committee
The Board of Deacons shall appoint an Auditing Committee which, by order of
the Board, shall audit the accounts of the Church Treasurer at any time deemed
advisable by the Board. The Auditing Committee shall also audit the accounts of all the
departments of the church.

5. Emergency Appropriation
The Board of Deacons may make additional appropriations to the annual budget from
time to time if, in their opinion, any emergency therefore exists.

I. Number and Election. There shall be four Deaconesses, elected at the annual
meeting of the church, for a term of office of three years, and so classified that one-
third shall be elected each year.

II. Responsibilities. The Deaconesses shall be responsible for the preparation of the
Lord’s Table and shall assist with the Baptismal services.


The Nominating Committee shall consist of five members to be appointed by the
Deacon Board at its regular meeting. This committee shall prepare and present a list
of two nominees for each elective office. This list of nominees shall be placed upon a
printed ballot and the same posted conspicuously at the church for inspection at least
two weeks before the annual election. Blank spaces shall be provided on the ballot for
the addition of other nominees at the option of any member. The Pastor shall appoint
tellers and be responsible for the completion of the election.

This committee shall consist of three members elected annually. This committee shall
have general supervision of the church music, and with the consent of the Deacon
Board may provide a budget therefore.

This committee shall consist of three members elected annually. This committee shall
provide and arrange appropriate floral decoration for church services and, with the
consent of the Deacon Board, may provide a budget therefore.

This committee shall consist of four members elected annually. They shall have
general supervision of social activities of the church. Also they shall arrange for food
and housing of guest speakers.

Committees may be appointed for a special purpose by the Pastor or any board or
standing committee or combination thereof.

Representative delegates to any affiliated organization shall be elected by the church
body according to the number of persons allowed.

Section VII: Decorating Committee
This committee shall consist of three members elected annually. They shall be
responsible for decorating the church facilities.

NOTE: All committees shall elect a chairperson.


Any society or organization, including adult or young people which has been or
shall be formed and connected with this church, shall be regarded as auxiliary and
subsidiary to the main church. Its election of officers and conduct of its business shall
be according to its own provisions, but its conduct and business shall be reported at
the annual church meeting and be subject to the supervision of the Board of Deacons.


This church shall maintain meetings for worship each Sunday, a prayer service each
mid-week and an annual business meeting after the last Sunday in December each
year. Other meetings, special or general, shall be convened as provided in the by-laws
or at the recommendation of the Deacon Board.

A majority of any board or committee shall constitute a quorum. Twenty five (25) active
members shall constitute a quorum at any church meeting. Such quorum shall have
power to vote except on matters of real estate or legal matters. A quorum with power
to vote on legal or real estate matter shall be those eighteen years of age or older.

Robert’s Rules of Order, Latest Edition, shall be accepted as authority in all

Upon written request by ten members, for a specific purpose presented to and
approved by the Deacon Board, the Pastor shall convene a church meeting after being
announced two Sunday’s from the pulpit.

Any offense charged against any member involving marl turpitude or private wrong
shall first be submitted to the Board of Deacons who will, by its proper committee,

make a preliminary investigation and seek to arbitrate the offense, but if this is not
effective or if the offense involves turpitude, then by approval of the Board of Deacons,
written charges may be made specifying the offense in particular and a copy thereof
delivered to the offending member with a time designated therein when he may be
heard in his defense. The member so charged may select his own advocate and
present evidence, and the same shall be heard and determined by the Board of
Deacons, whose vote upon final deliberation shall be final.

If, for the decision of any question, the church desires the advice and wisdom of
disinterested brethren, it may, by order of the Board of Deacons, invite members of
other Baptist Churches to meet on a specified day when the matter may be presented
and advice received.

This constitution may be amended by a three-fourths vote of those present at any
regular or specially called meeting for that purpose, provided that notice of the
proposed amendment shall be read from the pulpit on two Sundays proceeding the
time of action.